Badges Info for Leaders
We've included information for the Leader's Badges - read on to find out more ways to get your Members earning badges!
Tourism Level One
This new badge would be great to teach your members on a Rally night. They can write answers in their book or on a named page for you to mark afterwards. Following are some answers as well as suggestions for making it a fun time.
1. List different career opportunities in the Tourism industry.
(Travel agent, pilot, air hostess, chef/catering, hotel worker, outdoor recreation, tour coach driver/guide etc)
- Gather items of clothing, dress up appropriately and guess their job.
- Bring uniforms or clothing and guess what job it is – eg. chef, pilot, bus driver hats; apron; suit, pen & clipboard.
- Blu-tack pictures to walls and they have to guess the job (pilot, tour guide, hotel concierge…. ) Maybe have a list of jobs and they have to match them.
- Divide Rally into small teams. Each team finds 3-5 careers, muddles the letters of the word and then the other teams have to work it out.
- Charades – act out the occupation.
2. Name three places where you can get travel information.
(Travel agencies, internet, i-site centres, library, airports, AA magazines/offices …)
- Ask members for ideas – give a lolly to those who name a place correctly.
- Play a game – name the corners of your room ‘i-site’, ‘travel agent’, ‘library’, internet’. Then call out a corner. The last one there has to sit down. Keep playing until only a few are left. By this time they should all be able to write the answers down!
3. Prepare a project you could present to a foreign visitor that includes:
a) places of interest in your region
b) interesting geographical features in NZ eg, caves, geysers, mountains, waterfalls
c) six pictures of NZ icons.(buzzy bee, koru, silver fern, swandri, hokey pokey ice-cream, kiwi, kiwifruit, beehive (parliament)…
- Visit sites one Saturday
- Bring pamphlets for them to look through
- Create a large map of your region. Write places on the map that they suggest would be important to see.
- Photocopy a map for them. Have them cut out pictures of what to see and paste onto map where it is.
- Have a map of NZ. They write in what is there, plus the name of place eg, Rotorua – geyser/mud pools.
- Place pictures of famous places eg. Waitomo caves, Sky Tower, Mt Taranaki…They have to try and name them – individually or in teams.
- Get them to collect stamps that show icons & glue on page.
- Cut out pictures from magazines & glue on their page.
- Bring some kiwi icons to show.
- Play Pictionary – get members drawing the icons for team members to guess.
BADGE – Construction L2
Here are some ideas from the students who attended the Leadership Training Course (see pages 4-5). These are not the ‘answers’! These are ideas on how to present the badge in a fun and creative way.
1. List the tradesmen involved in building a house.
* Have pictures of tradesmen (builder, plumber, electrician, bricklayer, painter, glazier, tiler, carpet layer etc) and discuss who they are and what their job is.
* Have a set of pictures as above, plus a list of their trades. Match the correct trade to the picture.
* Draw or find an outline of a house plan. Make a copy for each Rally member. Talk about what each tradesman does, and then have members name the trade and draw an arrow to a part of the building they would work on. Eg. glazier – a window, bricklayer – outside of house, plumber – bath/shower etc.
* Create a Wordfind for them to do. Have a list of tradesmen they must identify in the Wordfind.
* Bring to rally a length of wood, hammer, paintbrush, brick, PVC pipe, light-bulb, piece of carpet etc. Ask them to identify what tradesman would use each item.
2. Choose a trade:
a) interview someone in this career and write up a report of their typical day.
* Ask a tradesman (or a couple of different ones and divide the rally in half) to come and talk about their job. Have a questionnaire sheet that your members can fill in as the questions are answered. Give a copy of a timesheet to each member that they can fill in as the tradesman shares a typical days’ work. (prepare suitable questions beforehand)
Maybe your tradesman can bring a few of his/her workers as well so there are suitable supervisors for the practical part of this badge (See no 2.c)
* Invite four or five different tradesmen to come, with some tools and an activity (see no 2.c) and divide Rally into the groups so a small group is with each person.
b) Name 3 tools frequently used by this trade, and explain how they are used.
(You will need to know ahead of time the tradesman you have chosen, so you can find suitable pictures, tools etc.)
* Play a ‘memory’ game. Have 2 pictures the same, of each tool (you may need about 7-8 tools) glued onto a card. Place another piece of card over the top with a number on them (randomly placed numbers), and blu-tack to a board. Members choose 2 numbers, you lift the number to show the picture. Ask members to identify the tools. If the pictures match, remove from the board. Continue until all tools have been matched up and removed. Go through the list of tools again and ask them if they know what they are used for.
* Bring in some tools used by your chosen tradesman.
- Get members to identify the tools and try to work out how you use it.
- or, have a list of jobs the tradesman would do and match the tool with the job. Eg. put a hinge on a door (screwdriver), secure framing (hammer & nails), mortar between bricks (trowel) etc.
* Have some tools (or pictures of tools) displayed. Write the names of the tools on pieces of paper and place in a hat. Choose someone to take 1 name out and match it to the correct tool. Continue until all tools have been correctly named.
* Pin up pictures of tools around the room. Number them. Give members pencil and paper and ask them to identify the tools and also state what they are used for. Give prizes to those with most correct.
c) Perform a common task for your chosen trade under the supervision of a tradesman. (Hence the suggestion for a number of them to come)
* You will need to bring enough ‘gear’ for each member to have a turn if you do this part at Rally. Place into groups to perform a task or do a ‘Round Robin’ scenario where they all have a few minutes at each activity, learning a task. Don’t have too many to a group. This is where you need expert supervision, depending on the activity.
Eg. - hammer a nail into a block of wood.
- screw a hinge onto a piece of wood.
- screw/unscrew PVC piping.
- replace a washer in a tap.
- plane a piece of wood.
- measure and saw piece of wood.
- unscrew/screw on a tap (remember to turn off the water!).
- mortar 2 bricks together
- stack bricks to form a pillar (learn the technique without mortar)
Public Speaking L1
PUBLIC SPEAKING Badge – Level 1
Here is a two-week suggestion for taking this badge with your Rally.
How to run : Takes 2 weeks x 1 hour sessions.
Week 1: 1 hour
1. Overview Badge – 3 mins – tell them what it entails.
2. Tongue Twisters: - lots on google – print and hand out – these get your tongue flexible. 10 mins of saying them together & taking turns.
3. Give talk lasting 2-3 mins. Do a talk on themselves, and show them how to break it down time wise. Hand out paper/pens. Get them to make bullet points – not sentences, on each area now.
Ask them how long do they think each area would take, do demo to begin – see below, using your name. 20 mins.
Begin: Name, surname, any nickname, meaning of name etc = 10 secs
Family: How many siblings? Ages, names, what doing, parents – jobs = 20 - 30 secs
Pets: Name them, why those names, describe, any peculiarities?
If no pets – tell us what you would like and why. = 20 secs
Live: Where live - suburb, describe house – their room = 20 secs
School: Name it, what subjects studying, what enjoy or not.
Any future career ideas? = 30 secs
Sports / Hobbies: Tell us – what you do or would like to do and why = 15 secs
FUN: Your favourite ice-cream flavour, worst food experience, funniest thing
that has happened, secret destination, favourite TV programme, band etc . . . .
any travel experience, favourite colour, day of week – anything crazy 1 minute
Total = 3 mins
Get them to practice now in pairs, and when ready to approach a leader and give their talk.
We asked them to make it 3 mins. Some did 2 mins – so we said ‘Not passed – do more practice’.
When we put the pressure on to do 3 mins – they all finally rose to the challenge and returned to give a 3 min talk – in front of their small group and a leader. 20-30 mins for practice and talk.
Week 2: 1 Hour
1. Overview: what we did last week & what we are doing tonight – 2 mins
2. Tongue Twisters – they love doing these – 8 mins
3. Read Bible story with good expression - 20 mins
To teach expression: hold up words on a sheet (Eg: tasty, wow, angry, big, small, incredible etc) Get them to say each word in a ‘boring’ way, then with suitable expression.
Then get them reading a Bible passage with good expression. I used a Children’s Bible and we passed it around the group and they each read aloud 2 paragraphs on Noah’s Ark.
(If you do Level 2 – use this story again and let them retell it in their own words.)
4. Welcome or thank you – 30 mins
We did ‘Thank you’. Go over what is included in a typical ‘thank you’ script – relate to school.
a) Name / Thank: Miss Bart, thank you for giving up time to share knowledge & experience on ……. I found the information really interesting on ……. and loved the quiz you gave us. Please show your appreciation. (start clapping)
b) Name /thank / Gift – clap: Miss Bart thank you for coming to talk to us on …… I really enjoyed what you said about….. Now, would everyone join me to show their appreciation. (start clapping).
Make up names and a topic on cards – they did 1 as a practice, then chose another card (Eg: Card - Mr Smith – Drug safety) and stood in front of group to say this one and to pass the badge – (allow no giggling!)
Road Safety L1
Road Safety Badge L1
Here are some ideas on how to teach this badge – submitted by students at the Leadership Training Course.
1. Know how a pedestrian & cyclist can make themselves seen at night.
* Choose 2 members & dress them in Hi Vis clothing. Choose 2 members & leave them in normal clothing. Spread them out around the room. Turn off the lights & shine a couple of torches around to show the difference in visibility. If it is dark outside, have the ‘specially clothed’
members hide outside, then send others out. Ask leaders to bring a torch and swing it randomly
around to see who is spotted easiest.
* Bring in 2 bicycles. Have 1 child dress in hi Vis jacket, helmet with fluoro strip on it, reflector/flashing light on bike; dress another in dark clothing with no lights or reflectors. Turn lights off & flash a torch over them as if you are going towards them. Talk to members about the difference in visibility and how hard it is to see when driving - you only have a few seconds to register there is someone there!
* Have a variety of clothing. Show items one at a time & ask members what they think would be more easily visible at night. Discuss the need to be seen.
* Print a picture, cut into jigsaw shapes (same for each team) & race to put together. Then discuss safety issues. (Google images ‘be bright be seen’ has suitable ones)
2. Understand some basic safety precautions you can take:
a) As the passenger in the car.
b) Getting in & out of vehicles.
c) Crossing the road.
d) Walking along a road with no footpaths.
* Round Robin scenarios – Spend 2 mins at each activity then briefly discussing…
1.Make a zebra crossing with masking tape – Walk over it, then discuss how safe they are. Still need to look both ways! Have you been seen?
2. Set scene – Walking along road with no footpath, which side should I be on? (walk towards oncoming traffic – except on corners…) How should I be dressed? (Hi vis, torch on at night) Check road code for how pedestrians keep safe. Teach them the rules.
3. Show pictures of right & wrong scenarios (images from internet) & ask questions on them eg. What is this person doing correctly? – Pic 1, walking towards vehicle. What could they do better? – have brighter/Hi Vis clothing. Step onto the verge. Pic 2, see difference in visibility.
4. Arrange seats as if in a car. Ask them to get into the car. What is the first thing you should do? (put seat belt on) What should you look for if you are getting out of the car? (traffic coming before you open door) Which side is safest to get out of car? (footpath/verge side)
5. Brief quiz – use road safety code to find other questions not covered in 1-4. eg. Do you have right of way as a pedestrian at a zebra crossing with lights? (NO! Cars have right of way at lights.) What is the danger of arguing with others when in a car. (Driver gets distracted & tries to deal with issue so danger of a crash.)
* Ask a policeman/policewoman to come & talk to Rally.
* Set up a mini road situation with masking tape. Have lights (use a leader with coloured cardboard circles), pedestrian crossings, roundabout etc. Choose 3 or 4 members to be the ‘cars.’ They ‘zoom’ around the road while leaders have small groups at different parts as well. Leaders need to get members safely across the pedestrian crossing, walk along the side of the road, stop at lights etc while the ‘cars’ are zooming around. Discuss safety as you go, make sure kids look each way before crossing, walk towards cars etc. Change the ‘cars’ partway.
3. Know the meaning of the 3 coloured traffic lights.
* Play the ‘traffic light’ game. Version 1 - On the word ‘red’, the children must stand very still. On the word ‘amber’, they can walk around. On the word ‘green’, they should run. If any of the participants do the wrong thing at the wrong time, they are out of the game. The leader of this game can make things confusing by shouting ‘Speed camera’ (slow motion), ‘roundabout’ (sit and spin).
Version 2 – Choose a ‘caller’ to stand at the front with their back to everyone. The rest are at other end of room (or play outside). On ‘go’, the members start to walk/run up towards the front person. At any time the front person can shout red light & turn around. If they spot someone moving, that person goes back to the start line. If they shout amber/orange light, they have to go slow. If they spot someone moving fast, they go back to the start line. First person to touch the ‘caller’ without being caught is now the caller, and all start at beginning again.
* Set up a ‘road’, with leaders at intervals holding red, orange & green circles (make ‘lollipops’ to hold from painted paper plates stapled to sticks). The members are the cars, & they travel around the road – jog for ‘green light’, walk for amber, stop for red. They must obey the signals when the leaders hold them up. Leaders can hold up whichever card they want, then change to another card. Members have to be aware at all times, and sit out if they disobey the sign.
4. Create a poster communicating a road safety message.
* Find suitable posters for members to colour in (younger ones), or draw their own poster. Give points/prizes for the best. You will need paints/crayons/felts/pens & paper, pencils & erasers. You can also provide extras by including scissors, stencils (lettering/pictures) fluoro paper, glitter, felt & encourage them to be creative using lift-up flaps, cut-outs from magazines, 3D images etc.
* Brainstorm suitable road safety messages, Eg. Stop, look, listen; safety matters; look out before you step out; alert today alive tomorrow; belt up; safety on road is safe tea at home…
* Work in small teams to create a larger poster. Give points/prize to winning team. Attach posters to wall for the rest of the term.
Information Technology L1
BADGEWORK – Information Technology L1
Here is some information for you to teach this badge at Rally. It could be done in small groups, all together, write information in a booklet as a project, or make a mural with the info on it & blutack on the wall for a term.
1. List five different information communication technology (ICT) devices.
USB, ipod, computer, mobile phone, tablet, digital camera, printer, laptop, webcam, GPS, scanner…..
2. Name two different software programmes & a useful task you could perform on each.
.. Microsoft Power-point – producing power-points for presentations.
.. Photoshop – enhancing photos.
.. Word Processing – Writing documents, doing homework projects.
.. Outlook – contacting people, sending information.
.. Antivirus – protecting your computer from hackers or destructive malware.
.. Internet Browser – (firefox, Google Chrome…) finding information n the Internet.
.. Excel – creating spreadsheets.
.. PDF/Foxit Reader – Opening attachments so you can read/see them.
3. Explain how to keep safe when searching for information on the Internet.
.. Keep to set expectations
What do Dad/Mum expect? EG, how long they should spend online, what apps and social media sites are safe to use and what is appropriate content to view. Install a ‘parental control’.
.. Have parents interacting when online
Encourage children to include their parents in who they contact, what info they look for etc.
.. Get Dad/Mum to check sites
Suggest they ask their parents to come and see how a site works, so they feel happy that the children are on it. It’s a good way to start a discussion on online safety.
.. Teach them the basics
1. Strong passwords
A strong password helps protect the information in your online profiles or accounts. Google ‘how to choose a good password’.
2. Information to protect online
.. Login details and passwords
.. Bank account details
.. Home address
.. Phone numbers
.. Birth dates
.. Personal information that could be used to guess security questions for online accounts.
3. Not everything is as it seems
Some people are not who they say they are online. It is dangerous to communicate with, or ‘friend’ people you don’t know offline.
4. Digital footprint
Teach children that they need to think about what they post online, and that what they post online leaves a “digital footprint” that can never be taken away.
.. Setting up social media
13 is the minimum sign up age for Facebook, Instagram, Snapchat, Twitter and YouTube.
Tips for setting up social media accounts
1. Make sure you know the online safety basics
2. Set up the account WITH Dad/Mum
3. Use Dad/Mum’s email address to sign up
4. Include your actual birth year so you’re less
likely to see inappropriate content
5. Have Dad/Mum as your friend so they can
6. Learn about the safety tools available
.. Online bullying
One in five young people in New Zealand have been the target of online bullying. Block the cyber bully and tell someone how you feel. Together, get help.
.. What if something does happen?
Let them know the options that are available to them – talking to a trusted adult, their school or Netsafe.
This is a good number to keep in their phone - 0508 NETSAFE (0508 638 723)
4. Name four different possible information technology careers.
IT Support Technician – help prevent, identify & fix problems with computer hardware & software.
Game Developer – write, design, programme, animate & test games & applications for the computer, gaming consoles & cell phones.
IT Manager – plan & supervise computer & IT services in an organisation or technical team.
Data Analyst – analyses data using statistical techniques & specialised software. They identify trends in data & then provide business insights through written & visual reports.
Software Developer – Develop & maintain computer & software websites.
Website Designer – design the layout & function of websites & software apps based on what users need.
OUTDOOR BADGE L1 & L2
Here are some ideas for doing this badge, suggested by the students at the Leadership Training Course last year. A great badge to do this term while the weather is warm.
1. Explain what is the necessary gear for two persons going for a days tramp.
· Have a discussion with the members & ask for their suggestions. Write them on the board. Make sure they cover all that is necessary, otherwise you need to remind them of anything they have missed.
· Have a backpack filled with the necessary gear, plus some other items that are not necessary. Take each item out one at a time & ask if it should be in their pack. Set them out in two piles – necessary & unnecessary.
· On a short tramp you only need a small backpack. Bring the necessary gear each child would need to take, plus some other items. Have a leader put on a backpack, then ask members what should go in the pack. As they mention the correct gear, pick it from the pile & put it into the backpack.
· Have pictures of necessary & unnecessary gear blutacked to a board. If someone suggests a necessary item, have them take it from one board & place it on another. Then you end up with the items they need on one board. Make a list of the necessary items & give it to them so they remember what to pack for the tramp.
2. Describe clearly the most suitable type of footwear for tramping.
· Ask the members their ideas & write on a board.
· Have a selection on footwear (jandals, sandals, sneakers, shoes, boots etc) set out on a table. Show each pair & ask them if they would be suitable for a tramp. Why or why not? Then set aside the suitable ones. Remind them these are the types of footwear you need to be safe.
3. List the preparation required and the safety rules to be observed.
· Discuss & write ideas up on the rules to be observed. Also ask what preparation should be done beforehand.
· Ask a DOC person (or experienced tramper) to come & talk about safety rules for tramping.
· Have a list of the things you need to do to be prepared, & also the safety rules written out. Put each item on the board one at a time & ask them why this is necessary. Or make a set of flashcards covering the necessary information & discuss together.
· Prepare a puzzle that once they have put it together, shows the list of safety rules to be observed. Or write all the necessary information in continuing circles without gaps, so they have to read through it all & separate the rules, writing them down in a list.
4. Accompanied by another, go on a tramp of at least two hours.
· Do a check of each member so you know they have suitable footwear, carrying raincoat, drink etc.
· Put the members into small teams or pair up. Give them clues or questions where they have to find things, spot things etc on the tramp.
5. L1 - Report on the above tramp telling where you went and what you saw either: by drawing a map; or by writing half a page; or by giving a talk about it at Rally. L2 – Give a written or verbal account of the tramp, including full details of route, distance (time or length), type of country covered & what you noticed while tramping.
· Have a set questionnaire for them to fill in afterwards. Eg. Where did we go? What birds did you see? Your favourite tree/plant? What did you enjoy most? Etc…
· Write up a report on the tramp yourself, leaving out some key words that they have to fill in.
· If you have some members unable to write well, put them in a group & ask them questions. You write the answers they give. Make sure all have turns at answering.
ANATOMY Level 1 Badge
Here are some ideas from the Leadership Training Course students, on how to creatively take this badge at Rally.
1. On a basic diagram of the human body label the following: heart, lungs, liver, kidneys, stomach, large intestine, small intestine.
* Draw a life-size outline of one of the leaders on a large piece of paper. Have a small picture of the body organs listed, and get each group to draw one of the organs to the proper size to fit the life-sized outline. They cut it out and attach it to the outline in the correct position. Then give them a human body outline and series of pictures on a smaller scale for them to do in their book or own poster.
* Give each child a picture of the human body, and a set pictures of the organs listed. (These are easy to collate from the internet & adjust to suitable sizes.) Discuss where they think each organ fits, teach them the correct place, then have them glue them onto their poster.
* Have a competition – give each group a body image with sets of organs and see who is first to place them all in the correct position.
* Very similiar to No 1. You can use the same ideas here.
* Colour co-ordinate – have a key down one side of the names of bones and their colour. Have a picture of the human skeleton and kids colour each bone named according to the colour stated.
* Jigsaw – life-sized if possible. Have a skeleton outline for each team. You cut them into skull, collarbone/shoulders, ribs, spine, arms, wrist & hand, pelvis, femur, kneecap, tibia & fibula, ankle & foot. Have a competition to see which team can put it correctly together first. Then have a smaller copy of skeleton for their book. Discuss names of bones & then label them in their book.
3. Explain the difference between arteries and veins.
* Here is a sample of a basic figure 8 diagram showing arteries (red) going away from the heart & veins (blue) going to the heart. Discuss what they do (carry blood around the body) & which way they go. (Easy to remember: A is for Artery & goes Away from heart.)
* Discuss the difference together, then give them a worksheet with
the information written out. Leave some gaps of key words they have to fill in correctly.
4. Name the five senses & the body organ associated with it.
* Write a list on a board of the 5 senses (taste, smell, sight, hearing & touch) and have the body organs (tongue, nose, eyes, ears & finger) written & blu-tacked randomly on the board. Get kids to match them correctly.
* Print some graphic (like this sample from the internet) for their book – they colour the body organ, write what each is & what you do with it. Eg. I smell with my nose, I feel with my finger etc.
* Play some games using these organs. See how many they can identify correctly & talk about how important each is.
- taste – blindfold 1 from each team & let them taste 4 different edible foods (eg. Spaghetti, scrambled egg, mashed pumpkin, mashed peas)
- smell – blindfold & get them to smell 4 different objects (eg. Coffee, vinegar, perfume, tomato sauce)
- sight – 1 team member blind-folded and led by another around an obstacle course OR have an object hidden that 1 member from each team can see & has to describe to their team. Team has to try and identify it by the description.
- hearing – Play game - blindfold 1 person, choose another to talk to them to see if they can identify the voice. If not, they get blindfolded & another is chosen etc.
- touch – Have a paper-bag of the same items for each team. Call out an object. 1 from each team has to put their hand in the bag without looking & try to find it. Then another item for next person etc.
Hold the Anatomy L1 badge.
Briefly explain the function of the following: Lungs, Liver, Kidneys, Stomach, Large & Small Intestine.
Lungs: An organ of external respiration (breathing). Your body has two lungs – with each breath, your lungs add fresh oxygen to your blood. Respiration is the process of oxygen from incoming air entering the blood via the lungs and carbon dioxide, a waste gas from the metabolism of food, leaving the blood via the lungs.
Liver: An extremely complicated and vital organ, which has many functions. It is the most versatile chemical laboratory in the body.
Kidneys: An excretory organ, which produces urine. This fluid carries various waste materials out of the body. Your body has two kidneys which:
Stomach: A muscular storage organ for food. Once food enters the stomach it gets mixed and churned along with the gastric juices which break down the food, which is part of the digestion process, and then passed into the bowel (intestine).
Intestine: This is a long muscular tube through which food passes, first into the small and then into the large intestine.
- Small Intestine: This is where most of the digestion occurs, when the food gets absorbed into the blood stream.
- Large Intestine: This is responsible for the absorption of water and excretion of the solid waste.
3. Explain the difference between a ball & socket & hinge joint giving an
example of each.
Ball & Socket Joint (eg. Hip or Shoulder): The round end of a bone fits into the cavity of another bone. It is a joint that allows one part to rotate at almost any angle with respect to another.
Hinge Joint (eg Knee or Elbow): This is a joint that allows movement only one way – backward or forward.
What is the role of the heart & lungs in relation to the circulation of the blood. Name the 4 chambers of the heart.
The Heart : Blood Circulation
The centre of the circulatory system is the heart. This is the main pumping mechanism and is made of muscle, which is held in place by the blood vessels that carry blood to and from its chambers.
The 4 chambers of the heart are:
Known as Atria
Circulation is a two part system to bring oxygen bearing blood to all the tissues of the body. The heart contracts and pushes the blood out in two major cycles….
SYSTEMIC LOOP controlled by the left side of the heart. The blood circulates into the body systems bringing oxygen to all its organs and tissues and collecting the carbon dioxide waste.
PULMONARY LOOP controlled by the right side of the heart. The blood circulates to and from the lungs to release the carbon dioxide waste and pick up the new oxygen.
Choose one of the five senses & do a brief project on it’s function, including at least one labelled diagram. (Here is a sample of one of the senses)
When you eat something, the saliva in your mouth helps break down your food. This causes the receptor cells located in your tiny taste buds (thousands of these cover your tongue and the roof of your mouth) to send messages through sensory nerves to your brain, which tells you what flavours you are tasting.
Your taste buds can recognize four basic kinds of tastes: sweet and salty (front of
tongue), sour (sides of tongue) and bitter (back of tongue).
Test your tongue!
Dry your tongue and put a little sugar on the dry part. You won’t be able to taste it because your tongue has to be wet for your taste buds to work!
Try salt water on the back of your tongue and you’ll hardly taste it, but on the front of your tongue it’ll taste very salty. Try vinegar or lemon for sour (back then sides) and onion juice for bitter (front then back). Tastes are stronger in some spots than in others (see picture above).
Your sense of smell helps you taste things. Hold your nose tight and put a piece of onion on your tongue. You can hardly taste it but as soon as you let go of your nose you’ll find the taste seems much stronger.
· You have almost 10,000 taste buds inside your mouth.
· Generally girls have more taste buds than boys.
· Taste is the weakest of the five senses.
· As you get older your taste buds become less sensitive.
Conservation badge Level 1
Here are some ideas & information for doing this badge together. It will take 2 Rally nights.
1. Collect from a roadside, park, seashore or similar, as much litter as you can – show evidence to your Rally leader.
.. Divide into teams, each with a leader. Take a plastic bag & a glove each. Walk around a street (each team a different one) near Rally, collecting what rubbish you find on the footpaths. Take back to Rally.
2. Make a list of the litter you picked up and who may have been responsible for dropping it.
.. Give paper & pen to leaders. Write a list as members name litter and decide who may have dropped it – eg. lolly papers, children on way from school; McD’s wrapping, chucked from cars; bottles, teenagers; cigarette butts, adult walkers etc.
3. Design a poster about litter using an original slogan.
.. You will need A4 paper, pencils, crayons/felts. Some slogan ideas… Be a tidy kiwi; No litter bugs here; Clean is best; Littering stinks; Clean & Care 4 our Country; Keep Clean & Green; Recycle Rubbish; Rubbish attracts Rodents; Care 4 NZ …
4. Understand & be able to answer questions about: a) Air pollution; b) Water pollution; c) Noise pollution.
Air pollution occurs when gases, dust particles, fumes (smoke) or smells are introduced into the atmosphere in a way that makes it harmful to humans, animals and plants. This is because the air becomes dirty (contaminated or unclean). Air pollution can result from both human and natural actions. Natural events that pollute the air include forest fires, volcanic eruptions, wind erosion, pollen dispersal. Human activities that result in air pollution include:
Smoke & fumes from industries and manufacturing activities, Burning fossil fuels, Household & Farming Chemicals.
Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies (e.g. lakes, rivers, oceans and groundwater), very often by human activities. Water pollution occurs when pollutants (particles, chemicals or substances that make water contaminated) are discharged directly or indirectly into water without enough treatment to get rid of harmful compounds. Pollutants get into water mainly by human causes. Water pollution affects drinking water, rivers, lakes and oceans all over the world. In many developing countries, it is usually a leading cause of death, by people drinking from polluted water sources.
Noise pollution is unwanted sound which produces unpleasant effects and discomfort on the ears.
Sound becomes unwanted when it either interferes with normal activities such as sleeping, conversation, or disrupts or diminishes one’s quality of life. Generally, noise is produced by household gadgets, tools, big trucks, vehicles and motorbikes on the road, jet planes and helicopters, loud speakers etc.
1. Requirements 1 & 2 as above.
2. Prepare a project on one of the types of pollution (air, water, noise) giving the cause & effect, the steps being taken to overcome the problem & any means of prevention.
Air: Causes 1. Emissions from industries and manufacturing activities.
2. Burning Fossil Fuels – cars, trains, planes, trucks etc.
3. Household and Farming Chemicals – crop dusting, house cleaners & sprays, paint etc. With no ventilation these can be harmful to us.
Effects 1. Acidification - Chemical reactions can create compounds which cause harm to vegetation and buildings. When it forms acid rain, it kills trees and harms animals, fish, and other wildlife. It also destroys the leaves of plants, & flows into lakes harming aquatic life.
2. Eutrophication – Excessive nutrients which can cause algae growth in lakes.
3. Ground-level ozone - Chemical reactions involving air pollutants create a poisonous gas ozone (O3) which affects our health.
4. Particulate matter - Air pollutants cause irritation to the eyes, nose and throat, infections such as bronchitis and pneumonia, headaches, nausea, and allergic reactions.
Solution efforts & prevention: Encouraging green energy, eg. wind turbines, solar panels, energy efficient cars. Encourage your family to use the bus, train or bike when commuting. Use energy (light, water, boiler, kettle and fire woods) wisely. Recycle and re-use things.
Water: Causes & Effects - 1. Nutrients – wastewater, fertilizers & sewerage destroy the purity of the water. If too many microbes grow, it can cause algae growth and/or deplete the water of oxygen.
2. Ground water pollution – chemicals soak into soil & destroy water in wells, bores & springs.
3. Microbiological – untreated water may contain viruses & bacteria that cause health issues.
4. Chemicals in Water - chemicals from industries & farms used to control weeds, insects and pests, also metals & solvents, all pollute water & make it undrinkable & unsafe even for swimming.
5. Oil Spillage – kills fish & birds & destroys beaches.
Solution efforts & prevention: Never throw rubbish away – use recycling; use water wisely; do not throw chemicals, oils, paints and medicines down the sink or toilet; plant lots of trees and flowers; buy more environmentally safe cleaning liquids.
Noise: Causes – 1. Household sources like food mixer, grinder, vacuum cleaner, sound systems, TVs, ipods and ear phones. Even a neighbour’s dog continually barking loudly.
2. Events like discos & gigs or parties where lots of vehicles & loud music may happen.
3. Commercial and industrial activities where printing presses, hammers & other machinery make loud noises; manufacturing industries, construction sites with bangs & explosions.
4. Transportation: aeroplanes flying over houses, loud vehicles passing on road, horns etc.
Effects: loss of hearing, anxiety and stress, reactions cause headaches, irritability and nervousness, or a feeling of extreme tiredness so you are unable to work.
Solution efforts & prevention: Construction of soundproof rooms for noisy machines in industrial and manufacturing installations. In your home, noisy machines should be installed far from sleeping and living rooms, like in a basement or garage.
Use of horns with jarring sounds, motorbikes with damaged exhaust pipes, noisy trucks should be banned.
Noise producing industries, airports, bus and transport terminals and railway stations need to be far from where people live.
Community law enforcers should check the misuse of loudspeakers, worshipers, outdoor parties and discos, as well as public announcements systems.
Community laws should have quieter zones near schools / colleges, hospitals etc.
Vegetation (trees) along roads and in residential areas is a good way to reduce noise pollution as they absorb sound.
3. For three months either:
a) Beautify an area outside by planting a tree or shrub & maintaining it; or
b) Individually or in a group, care for a public garden or area eg. the gardens or shrubbery of a church or hospital, or pensioner flats etc.
Plant a shrub at church or wherever you hold Rally. Check it each Rally night – water it, prune, weed around as needed, stake if necessary. Or – take one garden area of church or wherever you hold Rally, & each Rally night weed it, prune (when needed) & water.